Pentecostalism

Denzel Washington Preaches Gratitude to Church Members at Pentecostal Convention

Image via Roberto Rodriguez / St. Louis Post-Dispatch / RNS

Hollywood star Denzel Washington, the son of a pastor, preached a sermon of gratefulness Nov. 7 to hundreds of members of the Church of God in Christ at their annual Holy Congregation in downtown St. Louis.

“I pray that you put your slippers way under your bed at night, so that when you wake in the morning you have to start on your knees to find them. And while you’re down there, say thank you,” he told the crowd at a $200-a-plate banquet at the Marriott St. Louis Grand Hotel to raise money for the denomination’s charity work.

“It is impossible to be grateful and hateful at the same time,” he said.

“We have to have an attitude of gratitude.”

Pentecostalism in a Postmodern Culture

Molodec / Shutterstock.com
Molodec / Shutterstock.com

“It’s a new form of Christianity,” explained Opoku Onyinah, “now also living in the West.” He’s the president of the Ghana Pentecostal and Charismatic Council, and also heads the Church of Pentecost, begun in Ghana and now in 84 nations. Onyinah was speaking at a workshop on “How Shall We Walk Between Cultures,” and explaining how African Christianity is interacting with postmodern culture. It was part of Empowered21, which gathered thousands of Pentecostals in Jerusalem over Pentecost.

I’ve found this idea intriguing. Pentecostalism, especially as it is emerging in the non-Western world, is a postmodern faith. Often I’ve said, “An evangelical wants to know what you believe, while a Pentecostal wants to hear your spiritual story.” Perhaps it’s an oversimplification. But Pentecostalism embodies a strong emphasis on narrative and finds reality in spiritual experiences that defy the logic and rationality of modern Western culture.

'And Your Daughters Shall Prophesy'

Photo via Wes Granberg-Michaelson, from the Empowered21 conference.
Photo via Wes Granberg-Michaelson, from the Empowered21 conference.

Christine Caine gave a passionate and prophetic call for the church to be continually changing, even while at its core, it is “the same.” That constant change is driven by God’s continuing call to be sent as witnesses in the world. “We want power,” she told the spiritually hungry Pentecostals gathered before her. “But we don’t know what it’s for.” It’s not for ourselves, not for our own spiritual ecstasy. The power of God’s Spirit is given for us to be witnesses to God’s transforming love. And one can’t change the world without being in the world, instead of running from it. “We’re not here,” Christine Caine proclaimed, “to entertain ourselves.”

You could feel how her words stuck a deep chord within the crowd of those listening. I walked over to sit by a friend who is bishop of a large Pentecostal church. “This is the best word that’s been spoken,” he said to me. And that’s after we had heard eight world famous Pentecostal preachers.

Finding Cracks in the Walls of Ecclesiological Separation

Ryan Rodrick Beiler / Shutterstock.com
Palestinian men seeking access to Jerusalem at a checkpoint in August 2012. Ryan Rodrick Beiler / Shutterstock.com

JERUSALEM — One out of four Christians today is Pentecostal or charismatic, which means one of every 12 persons living today practices a Pentecostal form of Christian faith. This, along with the astonishing growth of Christianity in Africa, are the two dominant narratives shaping world Christianity today. Further, the gulf between the older, historic churches, located largely in the global North, and the younger, emerging churches in the global South, often fueled by Pentecostal fire, constitutes the most serious division in the worldwide Body of Christ today.

One can also frame this as the divide between the global Pentecostal community, and the worldwide ecumenical movement. Each lives in virtual isolation from the other, and both suffer as a result. I call it ecclesiological apartheid, with its own endless, winding walls of separation. And these walls need to come down, for the sake of God’s love for the world.

It’s become my passion, in whatever small ways, to make some cracks in these walls.

More Than Demographics

Demographic illustration, i3alda / Shutterstock.com
Demographic illustration, i3alda / Shutterstock.com

The story of world Christianity’s recent pilgrimage is dramatic and historically unprecedented. The “center of gravity” of Christianity’s presence in the world rested comfortably in Europe for centuries. In 1500, 95 percent of all Christians were in that region, and four centuries later, in 1910, 80 percent of all Christians were in Europe or North America.

But then, world Christianity began the most dramatic geographical shift in its history, moving rapidly toward the global South, and then also toward the East. By 1980, for the first time in 1,000 years, more Christians were found in the global South than the North. Growth in Africa was and remains incredible, with one of our four Christians now an African, and moving toward 40 percent of world Christianity by 2025. Asia’s Christian population, now at 350 million, will grow to 460 million by that same time. Even today, it’s estimated that more Christians worship on any given Sunday in churches in China than in the U.S.

'Break My Heart With What Breaks Yours'

High-octane contemporary worship with smoke, flashing lights, and words on huge screens energize and empower 3,400 Pentecostals from 69 countries filling the Calvary Convention Centre in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia,. This is the 23rd Pentecostal World Conference, a triennial gathering of pastors, leaders, and youth from around the globe. I’m here as part of a delegation from the Global Christian Forum, warmly invited, seated right in the front, and including representatives from the Lutheran, Orthodox, Seventh-Day Adventist, Mennonite, African-Instituted and Reformed church bodies, all members of the GCF steering committee. We’re easy to pick out of the crowd, since we’re the only ones who don’t spontaneously raise our hands in worship. I hope that image doesn’t make it to the big screens.

The explosive growth of Pentecostalism is an astonishing chapter in the story of world Christianity’s modern history. In 1970, Pentecostals (including charismatics in non-Pentecostal denominations) totaled about 62 million, or 5 percent of the total Christian population. In the four decades since, Pentecostals have grown at 4 times the rate of overall Christianity, and 4 times faster than the world’s population growth. Today they number about 600 million — one out of every four Christians in the world, and one out of every 12 people alive today. Most of this growth has come in the global South, in places like Africa, South America, and — yes — Malaysia.

The Pentecostal World Conference doesn’t look much like a typical denominational or ecumenical assembly. It’s more like a global revival service. Several of the world’s best-known Pentecostal preachers and leaders deliver stirring messages, complete with altar calls for those seeking the fresh empowerment of God’s Spirit in their lives and ministries. It’s a far cry from a Reformed Church in America General Synod, which I facilitated for many years. But these keynote speakers, along with the workshops held each day of the conference, open a window into global Pentecostalism’s present trends, challenges, and directions.

In writing From Times Square to Timbuktu: The Post-Christian West Meets the Non-Western Church, I found that one of the most intriguing questions I encountered is how rapidly growing forms of Christianity in the global South deal with social and economic issues within their societies. So in Kuala Lumpur, I was especially attentive to what might be said by the world’s Pentecostal leadership about the biblical call to justice and mercy. And I heard a lot that I wish I could now go back and add to my book.

Moving South: Day Three at the Global Christian Forum in Indonesia

The atlas also documents other dramatic trends, including the fragmentation of Christianity. New denominations, often borne out of strife and division, multiply endlessly. In Korea, for instance, there are now 69 different Presbyterian denominations. At the rate we are going, by 2025 there will be 55,000 separate denominations in the world!

That is an utter mess fueled by rivalry and confusion that hampers the church's witness and makes a mockery of God's call to live as parts of one body.

The atlas also documents the dramatic rise of revival movements throughout the world, and charts the story of Pentecostalism's rise. From its beginning a century ago, Pentecostalism now comprises a quarter of all Christians in the world. This fundamental change in Christianity's global composition, along with its geographical transformation, has created a dramatically different Christian footprint in the world.

Randall Balmer answers, "What is an Evangelical?"

The puzzle here is not that readers of the Bible would tilt toward the political left. That, for me, as well as for thousands of other American evangelicals, is self-evident. Jesus, after all, summoned his followers to be peacemakers, to turn the other cheek, to welcome the stranger and to care for “the least of these.” He also expressed concern for the tiniest sparrow, a sentiment that should find some resonance in our environmental policies.

No, the real conundrum lies in the subtitle the editors of Christianity Today assigned to Franzen’s article, which was titled, “A Left-Leaning Text.” Adjacent to a picture of a Bible tilted about 45 degrees to the left, the editors added the subtitle: “Survey Surprise: Frequent Bible reading can turn you liberal (in some ways).”

The fact that anyone should register surprise that the Bible points toward the left should be the biggest surprise of all.

One in the Spirit

Today one of every four Christians is a pentecostal, comprising an estimated 580 million persons, and growing by some 19 million every year. Some estimate that by 2025 there will be 1 billion pentecostal Christians in the world. In Latin America and Africa, pentecostal growth has been nothing sort of astonishing, and many of these churches take root among the poor and the marginalized.

Some months ago I was asked by the World Council of Church’s general secretary if I could be part of a small delegation representing the WCC at the centennial celebration of the Azusa Street Revival, where modern pentecostalism is said to have been born. I agreed because I had heard of the plans for this historic event from pentecostal colleagues involved with Christian Churches Together—the broadest, most inclusive fellowship of Christian churches and traditions in the U.S.—who had also encouraged me to attend.

One of the evening services was held in the West Angeles Cathedral. This 6,000-seat sanctuary is part of the Church of God in Christ (COGIC), the primary African-American pentecostal denomination in the country. Its lead pastor, Bishop Charles Blake, is a key figure in COGIC and well known among the leaders of historic black churches. We arrived early as instructed and were seated right in the front of the sanctuary. (I later learned we were near Whitney Houston, whom I didn’t recognize.)

The three-hour service combined the culture of worship in the black church with all the features of pentecostalism—speaking in tongues, explosive music, riveting preaching, fervent prayers, ecstatic utterance, and heart-felt yearnings for the Spirit’s healing and cleansing power. The ministry of this congregation has an impressive social outreach as well. Bishop Blake has a particular passion for the HIV and AIDS crisis in Africa, and he founded Save Africa’s Children. With partners in 23 countries in Africa, it now cares for 100,000 AIDS orphans.

Read the Full Article

Sojourners Magazine August 2006
​You've reached the end of our free magazine preview. For full digital access to Sojourners articles for as little as $2.95, please subscribe now. Your subscription allows us to pay authors fairly for their terrific work!
Subscribe Now!

Happy 100th to the Holy Rollers!

April marked the 100th anniversary of the birth of pentecostalism in a poor black neighborhood in East Los Angeles. Many pentecostals and charismatic Christians trace their spiritual heritage to this Azusa Street revival—when the Holy Spirit was made manifest through ecstatic worship, getting happy, healings, the “suspension in holy silence,” and particularly speaking in tongues. Today, there are more than 600 million pentecostals worldwide. In the United States, pentecostals constitute almost 3 percent of the population, and the numbers are rising.

Historically, Spirit-led religious movements have often sprung up among the marginalized and displaced. For example, a turn-of-the-century Welsh revival flourished in the era following rebellions against British road tolls and enclosure laws. The sanctified tent-meetings in Texas gained force after the awful hurricane that decimated Galveston in 1900. The African-American leadership in the holiness movement was forged in the fire of slavery. Lucy Fallow, a leader of the Texas revivals and later at the Azusa Street Mission, was the niece of Frederick Douglass and one of the first pentecostal missionaries to reach Africa.

The Holy Spirit uprising on Azusa Street was forged in a similar crucible. Chinese workers were rioting over an American trade expansion that weakened the Chinese dynasty and were boycotting American goods in reaction to the Chinese Exclusion Act. Filipino workers in California were siding with their compatriots in the Philippines who were attempting to overthrow American rule. African Americans were filling Los Angeles to escape the lynchings and other violence of the Jim Crow South. And the first major California water war was heating up.

Read the Full Article

Sojourners Magazine June 2006
​You've reached the end of our free magazine preview. For full digital access to Sojourners articles for as little as $2.95, please subscribe now. Your subscription allows us to pay authors fairly for their terrific work!
Subscribe Now!

Pages

Subscribe