Welfare Reform

Beau Underwood 07-26-2016
photosbypanda / Shutterstock

photosbypanda / Shutterstock

TWENTY YEARS AGO, President Bill Clinton promised to “end welfare as we know it” by signing into law the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, otherwise known as “welfare reform.”

Controversial at the time, the law placed a five-year time limit on government financial assistance to those in need and instituted work requirements for welfare recipients. With two decades of hindsight, there is now sufficient evidence to evaluate its effectiveness, the holes it created in our nation’s social safety net, and what needs to be done to address them.

One of the best examinations of this law’s effects is the insightful book $2.00 a Day: Living on Almost Nothing in America. Scholars Kathryn J. Edin and H. Luke Shaefer note that welfare reform has succeeded in important ways. “Poor single mothers,” they write, “left welfare and went to work in numbers that virtually no one expected. In 1993, 58 percent of low-income single mothers were employed. By 2000, nearly 75 percent were working, an unprecedented increase.” While the Great Recession reversed some of this progress, the employment rates remain “above pre-reform levels.” Child poverty rates also fell after welfare reform’s passage and remain down, though the authors note that additional measures, such as the expansion of the Earned Income Tax Credit and increased government spending on child-care programs, also factor into this decline.

But the outcomes are not universally positive. In the first 15 years after passing welfare reform, the number of people living in “$2-a-day poverty” had more than doubled.

Jack Palmer 02-02-2012
Union Jack mural in disrepair. Image via http://bit.ly/wLwse2.

Union Jack mural in disrepair. Image via http://bit.ly/wLwse2.

Gandhi once said that "a nation's greatness is measured by how it treats its most vulnerable." Today, it strikes me that the "Great" in Great Britain should probably be quietly dropped, and replaced with "Abject," "Inadequate" or something equally disparaging.

For that is how the UK is currently treating its most vulnerable — the young, the elderly, the disabled — inadequately, abjectly and without compassion. For the last few weeks, a battle has been raging between the government, the legislature, the Church, organizations, and the general public over a piece of legislation called the Welfare Reform Bill.

The bill is wide ranging in its ‘reforms’, covering a myriad of social security measures – from disability benefits, to welfare offered to the unemployed and their families and children. At a time when austerity and budget cutting is front and center of the government’s agenda, ‘reform’ is a by-word for ‘cutbacks’.

The crux of the legislation is an attempt to distinguish between different categories of "the poor," to weed out the “undeserving” from the “deserving.” Sadly, as can be seen from the uproar that the Bill has caused, this attempt has failed.

Book Review: American Dream: Three Women, Ten Kids, and a Nation's Drive to End Welfare (Viking: 2004).

Feared by some, welcomed by others, charitable choice might transform social services in this country. So why have so few people even heard of it?

Ched Myers 09-01-1999
The poor are always with us. The questions is what we do about it.
Molly Marsh 03-01-1999

National Summit addresses impact of welfare reform.

Carol Fennelly 01-01-1999
A historic gathering on the churches and welfare reform.
Duane Shank 11-01-1998
National Summit on the Churches and Welfare Reform.
Peter Laarman 09-01-1998
Why New York churches are resisting workfare.
Barbara Howell 03-01-1998
The rolls are down, but hunger is up.
Carol Fennelly 03-01-1998
Some Michigan churches provide hands-on support to families in transition.

While it may be too soon to tell if the 1996 Welfare Reform Act has succeeded in its goal of moving people from welfare to work, there are early signs from the streets that the attempts to make thi

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